2018年3月 9日 (金)

week of controversy about excessive

Sussex University head paid £230,000 'golden handshake' - report
The vice-chancellor of Sussex University is reported to have received a £230,000 “golden handshake” when he left the institution in August last year, the latest revelation in a week of controversy about excessive payoffs and rising salaries for higher education chiefs.
Michael Farthing, who was head of the university for nine years, was received the payout “in lieu of notice” upon his departure, according to Times Higher Education. His salary was not disclosed, but Adam Ticknell, his successor was paid £293,000, a fee that included £17,000 to relocate from Birmingham and £9,000 for his pension. The research-based institution paid £545,000 to two senior staff members this year.
Spiralling pay for top university officials is currently in the spotlight at at time when pay for teaching staff had flatlined or increased only modestly. Students meantime continue to pay £9,000 fees plus interest payments, and anger has led to greater scrutiny on the sector.
It was reported this week that Bath Spa University paid Christina Slade £808,000 in her final year as vice-chancellor before she was appointed emeritus professor in what is thought to be the highest payment made in the sector to date.
She was paid a salary of £250,000, plus £429,000 as “compensation for loss of office”, £89,000 in pension contributions, a housing allowance of £20,000 and £20,000 for “other benefits in kind”.
Dame Glynis Breakwell, the vice-chancellor of nearby Bath University, stepped down last week after an outcry over her £468,000 pay package, Southampton University was forced to defend paying its vice-chancellor £423,000, and academics at Birmingham University protested against the £2.9m paid its vice-chancellor, Sir David Eastwood.
More than 160 academics signed an open letter about Eastwood’s pay that read: “This is on top of the highly desirable university-funded residence provided for him on campus, and his university-funded chauffeur-driven car.”
The row at Southampton was aggravated by the revelation that its vice-chancellor, Sir Christopher Snowden, sat on the renumeration committee that approves pay packages.
“Vice-chancellors must be removed from the committees setting their pay and signing off their perks,” said Sally Hunt, the general secretary of the University and College Union, in comments made to the Times.
“They must publish full minutes of those meeting and staff and students must be given a seat at those tables to properly scrutinise these deals.
“With further excessive pay revelations likely to follow, it is time universities stopped simply trying to defend the system and accept there must be radical change.”
Andrew Adonis, the former Labour education minister who has campaigned on the issue, has described remuneration at Sussex as a scandal.
In the House of Lords, where he sits as a non-affiliated peer, he said: “Our universities are wracked by controversy over sky-high student fees and debts, run by vice-chancellors who have become latter day prince bishops paid up to £500,000 a year, and likening themselves to [Diego] Maradona and Richard Branson.
“There should now be an independent inquiry and a salary and pay-off cap of no more than £200,000,” he said.
Sussex University defended the arrangement and said it was transparent about staff pay.
“The university’s approach to senior staff remuneration continues to be open and transparent, and we take our governance responsibilities and sector compliance requirements very seriously,” said a spokesperson.
“In the case of our former vice-chancellor, we met our contractual obligations to him and this has been clearly published in our annual financial accounts.”
The universities minister, Jo Johnson, has promised “greater restraint in setting top salaries.” He said excessive pay for university heads would be brought under control by new regulations next year.
He said he was “absolutely convinced” that a new regulator, the Office for Students, will deal with pay concerns.

2018年1月 8日 (月)

Archbishop criticises grammar schools

Archbishop criticises grammar schools Image copyright PA Image caption Justin Welby says governments should not look to the past to improve education
The Archbishop of Canterbury has criticised grammar schools as "contrary to the notion of the common good".
Speaking in the House of Lords, the Most Rev Justin Welby called for education to focus on "drawing the best out of every person", rather than a selective approach.
He said governments should not look to the past and "waste our time rummaging there for the solutions of tomorrow."
Some Tory MPs said grammar schools offer "invaluable opportunities".
What now for grammar schools? First 'new' grammar school in 50 years Grammar schools: What are they?
Mr Welby led a debate on education, saying the country was now in a "fourth digital revolution" and schools had one of the "greatest challenges" in tackling the "seismic shift" when it comes to preparing children for the future.
However, he said "children of privilege continue to inherit privilege" and the system was not acting in a way to help everyone.
"The academic selective approach to education, one which prioritises separation as a necessary precondition for the nurture of excellence, makes a statement about the purpose of education that is contrary to the notion of the common good," said Mr Welby.
"An approach that neglects those of lesser ability or because of a misguided notion of levelling out does not give the fullest opportunity to those of highest ability or does not enable all to develop a sense of community and mutuality."
'Social mobility'
Mr Welby's comments have been denounced by some MPs who back the schools.
The pharmaceutical wholesale distributors provide detailed information of products for reliable usage. Conservative Andrew Bridgen told the Daily Mail: "[Mr Welby] is obviously entitled to his own views, but the evidence is that grammar schools are a great way for under-privileged children to escape poverty.
"It is well known that they provide social mobility for the under-privileged."
Fellow Conservative MP Conor Burns also told the newspaper: "Many grammar school provide invaluable opportunities for children from both poor and rich backgrounds, and give them the opportunities they may not otherwise have."
Selective ban
In 2016, Theresa May outlined plans to introduce a "new generation" of grammar schools by 2020, removing the ban introduced by Labour in 1997.
However, after the general election in June - and without a majority in Parliament - the government scrapped the plans, saying instead they would "look at all options" for opening new schools, without removing the ban.

Collaboration with Asia's Top Universities - PolyU fosters long-term partnership in academic and research collaboration with top universities in asia. Most of them are the top 10 Chinese universities and top ten universities in Asia.

2017年12月21日 (木)

Diabetes causes sexual disharmony

There are many places where diabetics have to pay attention to their lives, including diet and exercise, and one thing that is often affected by diabetes is sex. Because of the effects of diabetes, many men have erectile dysfunction and women have vaginal inflammation, but that doesn't mean they want to say goodbye to sex clinique fresh pressed .

How does diabetes affect sex?

For men, studies have shown that diabetes can lead to up to 40 to 60 percent of erectile dysfunction (ED). This is because diabetes can cause neuropathy, which can affect the tactile sensation of male genitalia, and reduce blood supply, resulting in erectile problems. Second, high blood sugar can affect the man's endocrine function, making sex hormone decrease, easy to appear low sex drive. Finally, long-term hyperglycemia can also damage the bladder and urethra, leading to hypertrophy of the prostate.

For women, high blood sugar causes the vagina not to be sufficiently lubricated, which can lead to pain in intercourse, and can lead to mold and urinary tract infections, leading to various gynecological inflammation. It has also been reported that high blood sugar can lead to low libido, but not as obvious as men.

How do people with diabetes have sex?

Combine traditional Chinese and western medicine, southern medical university hospital cardiovascular division chief physician yi-ye zhao said that people with diabetes to consider sex, according to their own illness severity is usually can have sexual life, but to restraint. Don't forget to make sure you take the sugar pill on time.

1. Low frequency: sex should not be excessive, especially for sugar friends. It is recommended that sex should not be more than twice in a week, and the emphasis should be placed on appeasement, which is more conducive to the recovery of the disease clinique fresh pressed.

2. Prevent hypoglycemia: sex is a high intensity exercise, and must be vigilant in the occurrence of hypoglycemia. Check your blood sugar levels before sex, and you can also eat properly.

3. Adjust your mindset: if sugar friends have happened, don't always feel that it is caused by diabetes, and don't be more nervous or worried. It is the psychological pressure that is too big, to oneself is not confident just more easily lead to impotence. At the same time, the other half should also give enough comfort and understanding to create a satisfying sex life together clinique fresh pressed.

2017年11月17日 (金)

Eating overnight food is harmful to human health

Many families put away the overnight food and eat it tomorrow. But it's dangerous to eat overnight. Take a look at the hazards of overnight food and how to deal with the overnight dish clinique fresh pressed.

The danger of eating overnight food

Overnight food produces deadly nitrites. Some of the overnight dishes, especially the leafy greens overnight, are not only nutritionally high, but also produce disease-causing nitrites. Storage of vegetables by nitrite generation along with the extend the storage time and temperature increase, and if put vegetables in the refrigerator cold storage (2-6 degrees Celsius), is the less nitrite increases.

Different types of vegetables are different in size. Different kinds of vegetables are different in the same storage condition. Usually, stem leafy vegetables are the highest, and the melon vegetables are slightly lower, and the root and cauliflower are in the center. Therefore, if you buy different kinds of vegetables at the same time, you should start with stems and leaves, such as cabbage, spinach, etc. If you are prepared to cook more dishes the next day, you should try to avoid the leafy vegetables and choose the melon.

The treatment of the overnight dish

1. Don't leave any leftover vegetables

People often worry about losing nutrition and unhealthy food. From both sides, vegetarian dishes are not as reassuring as meat dishes. It is well known that overnight dishes often have an excess of nitrite. Nitrite itself is poisonous, in the stomach and protein meeting, can produce carcinogenic substance nitrosamine. Data show that 80% of the nitrite intake comes from vegetables. The prepared vegetarian dishes are at a higher temperature, and the content of nitrite increases clinique vitamin c .

In addition, vegetable nutrition is more likely to be lost. This is because there are usually dozens of nutrients in a food, including water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins C and E. The nutritional value of vegetables is reflected in the rich vitamins. Therefore, the reheated vegetable has a serious nutritional loss.

2. Cover the refrigerator with a cool plastic wrap

The overnight dish is not absolutely cannot eat, the preservation condition must pay special attention, should be refrigerated immediately after cool thoroughly. Cooling can be caused by the sudden entry of hot food into a low-temperature environment. The heat of the food causes the water vapor to condense, causing the mold to grow, thus causing the food in the refrigerator to change. After cold, should put in the freezer in time, even in the winter, also don't spend long time outside, because the refrigerator has certain bacteriostatic effect.

Different overnight dishes must be stored separately to avoid cross-contamination of bacteria. It also needs to be kept in a clean container, such as a fresh box, a fresh bag, or a wrap plate with a plastic wrap.

3. Seafood with ginger, garlic, garlic and vinegar clinique fresh pressed

In addition to proper storage, reheating is the key to health. The overnight dish is stored in the fridge, and must be cooked at a high temperature before eating. Because low temperature can only inhibit bacterial reproduction, not kill bacteria thoroughly.

Different overnight dishes, the heating also has its own skills: in the overnight dish, it is the most resistant to fish and shrimp crab, even if it is stored at low temperature, it can produce bacteria and easily deteriorate. Therefore, when heating, it is better to add more wine, spring onion, ginger, garlic and other condiments, not only can mention fresh, also have certain bactericidal action, can prevent to cause stomach upset.

2017年11月 9日 (木)

Rachel Roddy’s recipe for braised beef ragu

We are back, temporarily, in the flat I lived in when I first moved to Rome 13 years ago. Friends keep asking how we’ve managed to fit all our things into such a small space. My answer is that we didn’t, that we are merely living around them in a sort of domestic Tetris, which my six-year-old finds most entertaining. I don’t. But I do have great affection for this small second-floor flat, which shares an internal courtyard with a bread shop and trattoria, as in many ways it is the reason I began writing about food in the first place. Stuffed to the gunnels we may be, but we are woken by the thick scent of bread being paddled from the ovens. Then, later in the day, as the trattoria comes to life, the siren scent of cured pork meeting a hot pan, sulphurous greens and the steam from baskets of pasta makes its way up two floors and through our front door There's excellent qualityvape pen cartridge at online stores and they are with ceramic body and leak proof seal ! Different product series like pre-heat battery are also available now. .
It was at the trattoria below and in the flats of neighbours on either side where I first tasted many of the classic Roman pastas for the first time: gricia, carbonara, amatriciana, the spicy arrabbiata clinging to quills of penne; where I first enjoyed spoonfuls of pasta e fagioli (pasta and beans); and rosemary-scented pasta e ceci (pasta and chickpeas). Also sturdy pillows of ravioli dressed with melted butter and sage, ribbons of pasta with chicken livers and – my desert-island dish – a tangle of spaghetti and clams. Years before, as I diligently tried and failed to wind the strands around the fork, I told my mum spaghetti was maybe my favourite meal. I must have been eight. I was 32 when I knew it was.

I knew little about Roman food and spoke no Italian when I first arrived. This was frustrating but, in retrospect, quite useful with regard to cooking, as it meant that advice was best demonstrated. You don’t need words to understand that the Italian love of pasta is visceral, that it is synonymous with home, nor to understand the strength and tenacity of Italian food habits and their single-minded belief about how things are best done. I did find it intimidating, especially when combined with the often hurtful thoughts about the English and their food. Dented I was, but none of this was enough to puncture my enthusiasm or determination.

I had cooked pasta all of my adult life, but had never tasted anything like the dishes in Rome – and later Sicily. I was happy to relearn the most basic things: how to cook pasta, to sauté a clove of garlic and make the simplest tomato sauce, how to match a shape with a sauce, to flip a pan and bring disparate parts together. I watched and I copied. Add to this a new partner whose nonno was a Sicilian tomato and wheat farmer – which explains his dogged devotion to a plateful of pasta, which isn’t so much a meal as a way of life.
These days Oretta Zanini De Vita’s encyclopedia of pasta never leaves my desk. Every time I look at this astonishing compendium of 300 shapes and 1,500 regional variations, I realise that my experience of pasta, despite my years and travel, is minimal, and that Roman influences prevail. We eat pasta almost every day and they are everyday pastas, which means the no-nonsense sort – a few ingredients combined boldly in a way that makes sense, respecting tradition but never letting that get in the way of a meal. I have written about most of them here – pasta and chickpeas or beans or potatoes, spaghetti with clams, pasta al pomodoro (with bursting tomatoes), Cinzia’s baked pasta, pasta with courgettes cooked rather like carbonara, a classic bolognese ragù and this, another ragù. Inspired by tomato-red southern ragus, todays recipe provides two meals.

Like so many Italian recipes, the foundations are fundamental: pancetta and a great handful of chopped carrot, celery and onion cooked until soft and fragrant. Then the meat – in this case a whole piece – which is browned and followed by wine and tomato, and which bubbles away until the sauce is glossy and the meat tender. The meat has a double role here, lending rich juices to the sauce while retaining enough flavour for another course or meal, ideally with green sauce. I have adopted the Roman habit of tossing the pasta first with cheese, which creates a better surface for sauce to cling to. Whether you add cheese before or after, toss vigorously, sending steam and alluring aromas to your neighbours.

2017年8月10日 (木)

These three situations can be misused to poison yourself


Mix the stuffing with MSG

After mixing the MSG into the filling, it will be steamed, boiled, Fried and other high temperature processes. But, as long as the temperature over 120 ℃, MSG degeneration occurs. Not only will it lose its freshness, it will also form a toxic sodium cargosine sodium, which will harm human health. 1.


First put MSG in stir-fry

First, choose water as the medium of cooking, such as blanking, steaming, boiling and stewing. Water's boiling point is 100 ℃, cooking temperature is low, can reduce the proportion of coke sodium glutamate monosodium glutamate into. Secondly, delay the time of MSG. "When stir-fried vegetarian dishes, put MSG in ten seconds. When cooking meat, turn off the heat for two minutes. 1.


There is too much monosodium glutamate

Monosodium glutamate contains a lot of sodium, when eating too much monosodium glutamate, on the one hand, it can cause excessive sodium intake, leading to hypertension and other diseases. On the other hand, when consumption of MSG exceeds the metabolic capacity of the body, the blood glutamate content will increase. 1.

Make sure of these points before eating MSG

1. When the dish comes out of the pot, put the MSG. And easily dissolved during temperature 80 ℃ ~ 100 ℃ and the role of its taste and change happens when more than 100 ℃ and lose freshness, more than 150 ℃ when also can form and have certain monosodium glutamate toxicity, so do the dishes or soup to wait out in the pan, add MSG is the best. 2.

2. No more than 5 grams per day. Adults should not consume more than 5 grams of MSG per day. MSG is monosodium glutamate, which can cause high blood pressure, so don't eat too much MSG every day. It's better for infants and children not to eat MSG An oil vaporizer runs on oil vape pen battery which needs charging. Now imagine one that takes long hour to pre-heat! Isn't that irritating? So, it's always better to buy an oil vape pen battery from reputed online sites! .

Stir-fried meat and vegetables will not add MSG. The meat contains glutamate, which naturally produces monosodium glutamate, the main ingredient of monosodium glutamate. 2.

Taste and salt are not sweet. The flavor of monosodium glutamate can be found in salty dishes, but if you put MSG in the sweet dish, it can not only add freshness, but also inhibit the flavor of sweet fresh and produce a peculiar smell.

2017年7月 6日 (木)

I don't believe she ever

But when the door closed upon the escaping aunt and the sympathizing cousin, poor Mrs. Payton's worry overflowed into such endless details that at last her hearer gave up trying to comfort her. When he, too, made his escape, he was profoundly fatigued. His plea that Frederica should be allowed to burn her fingers so that she might learn the meaning of fire had not produced the slightest effect. To everything he said Mrs. Payton had opposed her outraged taste, her wounded love, her fixed belief in the duty of youth to age. When he ventured to quote that
... it was better youth
Should strive, through acts uncouth,
Towards making, than repose on aught found made suv car rental,

she said poetry was all very well, but that, perhaps, if the poet or poetess who wrote that had had a daughter, they would think differently. When she was reminded that she, too, had had different ideas from those of her parents, she said, emphatically, never!—except in things where they had grown a little old-fashioned Word Of Mouth.

I don't believe, when I was a girl, I ever crossed Mama in anything more important than in little matters of dress or furnishings.... Oh, do look at my puzzle before you go!

But Arthur Weston, almost dizzy with the endless words, had fled. Down-stairs, while he hunted for his hat and coat, he paused to draw a long breath and throw out his arms, as if he would stretch his cramped mind, as well as his muscles, stiffened by long relaxing among the cushions of the big arm-chair.
Is there anything in this world duller than the pronunciamento of a dull woman! he said to himself. On the street, for sheer relief of feeling the cool air against his face, instead of the warm stillness of Mrs. Payton's sitting-room, he did not hail the approaching car, but strolled aimlessly along the pavement, sticky with fog.

I wonder if she talks in her sleep? he said. I don't believe she ever stops! How can Fred stand it? He knew he couldn't stand it himself. I'd sell pop-corn on the street corner, to get away from it—and from Andy's old stovepipe! It occurred to him that the ideals set forth in Mrs. Payton's ceaseless conversation were of the same era as the hat. But the hat would fit Fred best, he thought—Hello! he broke off, as, straining back on the leash of an exasperated Scotch terrier, a girl came swinging around the corner of the street and caromed into him so violently that he nearly lost his balance Looking at Hong Kong hotel list and promotion? GuangDong Hotel always provides different specials for our guests. We provides fully furnished rooms with various in-room facilities and amenities. .

2017年6月30日 (金)

But for all that, the main

The instincts of a people are vague and obscure. The reasons which are put forward, the motives {183} which appear upon the surface, the provocations which lead to action, the immediate ends which are sought after and pursued, rarely explain the true causes or proportions of any great national struggle. But for all that, the main issue, as a rule, is realised by the masses who are engaged, although it is not realised through the medium of coherent argument or articulate speech Securities trading. The present war is a fight, not between democracy and autocracy, but between the modern spirit of Germany and the unchanging spirit of civilisation. And it is well to bear in mind that the second of these is not invincible. It has suffered defeat before now, at various epochs in the world's history, when attacked by the same forces which assail it to-day. Barbarism is not any the less barbarism because it employs weapons of precision, because it avails itself of the discoveries of science and the mechanism of finance, or because it thinks it worth while to hire bands of learned men to shriek p?ans in its praise and invectives against its victims. Barbarism is not any the less barbarism because its methods are up to date. It is known for what it is by the ends which it pursues and the spirit in which it pursues them dermes vs Medilase. The modern spirit of Germany is materialism in its crudest form—the undistracted pursuit of wealth, and of power as a means to wealth. It is materialism, rampant and self-confident, fostered by the state—subsidised, regulated, and, where thought advisable, controlled by the state—supported everywhere by the diplomatic resources of the state—backed in the last resort by the fleets and armies of the state. It is the most highly organised machine, {184} the most deliberate and thorough-going system, for arriving at material ends which has ever yet been devised by man. It is far more efficient, but not a whit less material, than 'Manchesterism' of the Victorian era, which placed its hopes in 'free' competition, and also than that later development of trusts and syndicates—hailing from America—which aims at levying tribute on society by means of 'voluntary' co-operation. And just as the English professors, who fell prostrate in adoration before the prosperity of cotton-spinners, found no difficulty in placing self-interest upon the loftiest pedestal of morality, so German professors have succeeded in erecting for the joint worship of the Golden Calf and the War-god Wotun, high twin altars which look down with pity and contempt upon the humbler shrines of the Christian faith. The morality made in Manchester has long ago lost its reputation. That which has been made in Germany more recently must in the end follow suit; for, like its predecessor, it is founded upon a false conception of human nature and cannot endure. But in the interval, if it be allowed to triumph, it may work evil, in comparison with which that done by our own devil-take-the-hindmost philosophers sinks into insignificance YOOX HK . WANT OF A NATIONAL POLICY Looking at the present war from the standpoint of the Allies, the object of it is to repel the encroachments of materialism, working its way through the ruin of ideas, which have been cherished always, save in the dark ages when civilisation was overwhelmed by barbarism. Looking at the matter from our own particular standpoint, it is also incidentally a struggle for the existence of democracy. The chief question {185} we have to ask ourselves is whether our people will fight for their faith and traditions with the same skill and courage as the Germans for their material ends? Will they endure sacrifices with the same fortitude as France and Russia? Will they face the inevitable eagerly and promptly, or will they play the laggard and by delay ruin all—themselves most of all? ... This war is not going to be won for us by other people, or by some miraculous intervention of Providence, or by the Germans running short of copper, or by revolutions in Berlin, nor even by the break-up of the Austrian Empire. In order to win it we shall have to put out our full strength, to organise our resources in men and material as we have never done before during the whole of our history. We have not accomplished these things as yet, although we have expressed our determination, and are indeed willing to attempt them. We were taken by surprise, and the immediate result has been a great confusion, very hard to disentangle.

2017年6月21日 (水)

we want: it's soldiers

The following extract from a letter written by one of his friends who had attended the War Service at St. Paul's gives a true picture: "A sudden vision arose in my imagination of Hugh Dawnay striding down the choir, in full armour, like St. Michael—with his head thrown back, and that extraordinary expression of resolution which he always seemed to me to possess more than any one I have ever seen. His wide-apart eyes had more of the spirit of truth in them than almost any—also an intolerance of falsehood—or rather perhaps a disbelief in its existence...." This is true. He was one of {xxx} that race of men whose recumbent figures are seen in our old churches and cathedrals, with hands clasping crusaders' swords against their breasts, their hounds couching at their feet dermes .

In physique and temperament Hugh Dawnay and John Gough[4] were in most respects as unlike a pair of friends as ever walked this earth; but we might have searched far before we could have found two minds which, on most matters connected with their profession, were in more perfect accord. Dawnay, younger by four years, had served under Gough in trying times, and regarded him (an opinion which is very widely shared by seniors as well as juniors) as one of the finest soldiers of his age. Though Dawnay was slender and of great height, while Gough was rather below the middle stature, broad and firmly knit, there was one striking point of physical resemblance between them, in the way their heads were set upon their shoulders. There was something in the carriage of both which seemed to take it for granted that they would be followed wherever they might chose to lead. In Lord Roberts, and also in a strikingly different character—Mr. Chamberlain—there was the same poise, the same stable equilibrium, without a trace in it of self-consciousness or constraint. It may be that the {xxxi} habit of command induces this bearing in a man; or it may be that there is something in the nature of the man who bears himself thus which forces him to become a leader .

Gough took no part in the preparation of the original Memorandum; but in March 1913 he discussed it with me[5] and made various criticisms and suggestions, most of which have been incorporated here. His chief concern with regard to all proposals for a National Army was, that the period of training should be sufficient to allow time for turning the average man into a soldier who had full confidence in himself. "When war breaks out"—I can hear his words—"it's not recruits we want: it's soldiers we want: that is, if our object is to win the war as speedily as possible, and to lose as few lives as possible." Under normal peace conditions he put this period at a minimum of two years for infantry; but of course he would have admitted—and did, in fact, admit when I saw him last December—that under the stress and excitement of war the term might be considerably shortened.

His chief concern in 1913 was with regard to shortage of officers. He criticised with great severity the various recent attempts at reforming our military {xxxii} system, not only on the ground that we had chosen to rely upon training our national forces after war had actually broken out (in his view a most disastrous decision); but also because we had not taken care to provide ourselves against the very emergency which was contemplated, by having a reserve of officers competent to undertake the training of the new army in case of need.

I went to see him at Aldershot on the Friday before war was declared, and found, as I expected, that he regarded it as inevitable. He had undergone a very severe operation in the early summer, and was still quite unfit to stand the strain of hard exercise. It had been arranged that we were to go together, a few days later, to Sweden, for six weeks' shooting and fishing in the mountains. He was very anxious to return to England for the September manoeuvres. His surgeon,[6] however, forbade this, on the ground that even by that time he would not be fit to sit for a whole day in the saddle dermes .

He was in two moods on this occasion. He was as light-hearted as a boy who is unexpectedly released from school; the reason being that the Army Medical Officer had that morning passed him as physically fit to go abroad with Sir Douglas Haig, to whom he had acted as Senior Staff Officer since the previous autumn.

2017年6月 6日 (火)

was brought about

Briefly, this was brought about as follows. We mentioned on an earlier page that though the Portuguese jealously guarded the secret of the India route, they were quite willing to dispose of these Indian goods. One of these marts , to which merchants came from other countries in order to purchase, was Lisbon. The second was Antwerp, which was convenient for the merchants of Northern Europe. England, by the way, had done a good deal of overseas trade between London and Antwerp for centuries, so this additional East Indian trade made the visits of our merchantmen even more important, and thus many first realised what India meant commercially, and could mean to them. And similarly the people of the Low Countries became equally impressed with what they learned. Thus very naturally we see in 1593—the actual year in which the Levant Company had obtained their extended charter—the first of a series of efforts made by Dutchmen to reach Asia by a north-east passage. And we must not omit to mention the very great influence which Jan Huygen von Linschoten, a native of Haarlem, had. The latter was a great student of geography, at a time when all knowledge of this kind was rare. For a while he was resident in Lisbon, where he amassed a large amount of invaluable data concerning the East—its harbours, configuration, trade-winds, and so on. Lisbon, in fact , was just the place in which all the East Indian information naturally collected itself. Later on Linschoten himself proceeded to India and dwelt at Goa, in the train of the Portuguese Archbishop, but in the year 1592 he returned to Europe, and the tales which this traveller told concerning India astonished53 the slow-reasoning minds of his fellow-countrymen. In the year 1596 he published a most valuable book dealing with the East, affording charts and maps and no end of information which would be priceless to any who might venture on a voyage to India. An English translation appeared two years later, and it certainly had a great influence on the founding of our first East India Company. So important was the book, indeed, that it was also translated and published in French, in Latin and German.

As for Holland, the tangible result was that four ships were fitted out, and under Cornelis Houtman were sent in 1595 to the countries situate the other side of the Cape of Good Hope, beyond the Indian Ocean. Houtman’s voyage had been a success, for in the year 1597 he returned, bringing with him a treaty made with the King of Bantam, which was the means of opening up to Holland the Indian Archipelago. This voyage convinced even the most sceptical, and a new era had begun, in which Holland was to grow rich and powerful, a great commercial country and of considerable strength at sea. The handsome seventeenth-century buildings which you still find standing in Holland to-day, and the brilliant seventeenth-century Dutch painters of portraits and shipping scenes, are surviving evidences of a wonderful prosperity derived for the most part from the East India trade of that time.

It came about, then, that England was to find a keen rival for the possessions of the East. There was going to be a very hard struggle as to which would win the race. One voyage succeeded another, so that actually the Dutch were wanting in big craft and had to come over to England to buy up some of54 our shipping. But this was the final straw which broke the back of Englishmen’s patience. They had looked on for some time with restraint at the progressive enterprise of the Dutch, and had become very jealous of their commercial prosperity. It was a condition to which the present Anglo-German rivalry is very similar in kind. But it was clear something must be done now. The London merchants who were interested in the Levant Company had found that their charter of extension granted in 1593 for overland trading with India availed them but little. Therefore, arising out of this company it happened that a number of merchants met together in London in the year 1599 and agreed to petition Elizabeth for permission to send a number of well-found ships to the East Indies, for which they prayed a monopoly macau hotel jobs , subscribing the sum of £30,133 for an East Indian voyage. It was certainly high time to be moving, for the Dutch were gaining all the foreign freight—they were nicknamed the “waggoners of the sea”—whilst English ships were rotting away in port, or doing little more than mere coasting.

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